Humanoid robots are very different from your typical automatons. Instead of being made of metal, humanoid robots look like human beings. They walk on two legs, have arms and hands (instead of claws or blades), and have fully articulated faces. Best of all, they can move around in the same spaces as humans without fear of tripping over, falling through a stairwell, or doing any other kind of dangerous things that could hurt them or anyone else. Humans are among the most complex creatures on earth, with rich emotional lives and complex thinking abilities that make them capable of feats like playing chess and flying to the moon. Creating a humanoid robot is one way to learn more about how humans work and what makes us who we are. With this tutorial, you’ll learn everything you need to know about creating a humanoid robot from scratch.
How To Make A Humanoid Robot
Things to Know Before You Start
You can build any humanoid robot you like, but there are a few things you’ll want to consider before you start. Will your robot be autonomous or remote-controlled? How complex do you want the electronics to be? What materials will you use: metal, plastic, wood, or something else? What tasks will your robot be able to do? Will your robot need to climb stairs, stand on uneven ground, or walk on ice? Once you’ve answered these questions, you’re ready to start building. Depending on the complexity of your robot and the materials you’re using, you may need to create custom parts using a 3D printer or CNC machine. You’ll also need to have a space to work, either a garage or workshop, and tools like a soldering iron, screwdrivers, and wire cutters. You’ll also need an electrical multimeter to check for current, voltage, and resistance.
What Do Humanoid Robots Look Like?
Because humanoid robots are built to resemble human beings, they come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Some, like the famous T-800 from the Terminator movies, are very large and muscular. Others, like Honda’s ASIMO, are shorter and stouter. Regardless of size, they all have certain things in common. – All humanoid robots have two legs and two arms, as well as two hands. The legs end in feet, not wheels or treads like most automatons. – Most humanoid robots have heads, eyes, and ears, but no mouth. They don’t need mouths to talk, but most can use their mouths to pick up objects or drink water. – Most humanoid robots are made of metal and plastic, while some have rubber or silicone skins that look very much like human flesh.
Materials You’ll Need
– Soldering Iron and Wire Cutters: Most humanoid robots are controlled by computers, and computers are made of wires. It’s your job to connect all the wires together, and that’s what the soldering iron and wire cutters are for. – Screw Driver: You’ll need to screw together your frame, motors, and other parts. – Wrench: You’ll need a wrench to tighten your bolts and nuts. – Glue: You may need to glue your frame together, so stock up on glue. – Wire: You’ll need two kinds of wire: one to connect your motors with your frame, and one to connect your computer to your motor controller. – Computer: You’ll need a computer to program your robot. You could also use a handheld device like a smartphone or tablet, but a computer is best.
Installing the Software
Before you can build your robot, you’ll need to download the software that lets your computer “talk” to your robot. The two most common pieces of software are RobotC and Arduino. Both programs are easy to install, but RobotC is more complex and better for more advanced robotics projects. Once you’ve installed the software, you can begin to design your robot from scratch. Start by sketching out your robot on paper and deciding where each of the parts go. Once you’ve sketched out your robot, you can move on to building the frame.
The Frame and Bending Mechanism
All humanoid robots need a frame, even if they’re made of just two pieces of wood. Frames connect the motors with the robot’s arms, legs, and head, giving it the ability to walk, stand, sit, and move its hands. Frames are made using a combination of wood and metal, with plastic pieces in between to add more flexibility. Once you’ve built your frame, you’ll need to connect your motors to it. Most humanoid robots have two legs and two arms, each with a motor. The best way to connect the motors to the frame is with a bending mechanism. A bending mechanism allows the frame to bend as the motors move, keeping the motors and wires from getting pulled out of place.
Scapula and Shoulder Instance Variables
Once your frame is built and the motors are connected, you can start on the upper body. Humanoid robots have arms with hands that are designed to be just like human arms, complete with rotating joints, elbows, wrists, and fingers. For example, if you want your robot to rotate its left hand, you’ll need to rotate its scapula. But how do you know how much to rotate it? Scapulas are like hinges that allow the arms to move. You’ll need to provide them with a specific amount of room to wiggle. To do this, you’ll need to make two instance variables: one for the shoulder and one for the scapula. Shoulder: The shoulder instance variable is easy. It’s basically the width of the arm and the length of the arm. You need to know the width so you know where to put the shoulder and the length so you know how far up the arm goes. Scapula: The scapula instance variable is more complicated. It measures the distance between a point on the shoulder and a point on the hand. To figure out the distance, you’ll need a measuring tape, a table, and a book. Place the measuring tape on the table, with one end on the edge of the table and the other end on the floor. Place a book on the table at the midpoint between the measuring tape and the floor. Now, measure the distance between the book and the table. That’s how far the scapula needs to go.
Instance Variable: Elbow Variable and Bending Mechanism
The elbow is a hinge that allows the arms to bend. You’ll need to provide it with a specific distance to move. Make an instance variable for the elbow and add a percentage (10%, 50%, etc.) that determines how far it can bend. Bending Mechanism: You’ll also need to make a bending machine for the elbow. Bending mechanisms are basically pieces of wood with an elbow joint in the middle connecting the motors to the frame. They make it easier for the motors to bend the elbow.
Instance Variable: Wrist Variable and Hand Instance Variables
The wrist allows the hand to rotate. It doesn’t need a specific distance to travel, so don’t add anything to the wrist instance variable. It’ll be connected to the fingers. Fingers: Like the scapula, the distance between the wrist and the fingers is measured in books. Make another instance variable for the fingers and measure the distance between the wrist and the fingers. Bending Mechanism: The bending mechanism for the fingers is just a piece of wood with two holes cut in it. One hole is for the thumb and one is for the finger. You’ll need to make holes in the wood because you don’t know how big your robot’s hand is.
Bottom Portion Instance Variables
The last part of the robot you need to worry about is the bottom. The bottom portion is made up of the legs and the feet. You’ll need to make instance variables for the distance between the legs, the distance from the bottom to the ground, and the length of the foot. You need to
What is the difference between an instance variable and a regular variable?
Instance variables are like normal variables, except that they only exist within single objects. You can use an instance variable to track the distance between two objects or to track how far a robot’s arm can bend.
What is an initial velocity? What does it have to do with robots?
Initial velocity is a term used in kinematics to describe how fast something starts moving. Initial velocity is important in robotics because you need to know exactly how fast your robot starts moving before you can calculate its distance traveled. This will help you figure out where your robot has traveled so far. If your robot’s initial velocity was 10 units per second, then it would’ve traveled 10 units in one second (1 unit = 1 meter).